Citing Sources

Information on how to use different citation styles, and tools for creating citations and managing references.

APA Tutorials

APA 6th ed.

These links may offer sufficient advice for most student papers.
The official manual is at the EMU Library check-out desk:

 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
 Reserve Reference BF 76.7 .P82

What is a doi ?

DOI stands for Direct Object Identifier. DOIs are used to identify electronic articles and function much like the ISBNs that you are used to for textbooks.

Unlike a web address, the DOI for an article never changes. APA Style recommends that you include a DOI when available.

Where do I find a DOI?
The DOI is often printed on the first page of journal articles--sometimes at the top of the page and sometimes at the bottom. You will recognize it, because it usually is preceded by doi: and the number always starts with 10.

Some articles will not have a DOI, especially non-scholarly articles or older articles.

Ask a Librarian Chat

Chat provides research help from librarians at EMU and other schools.