International Business

Which style do I use?

Use the style that your professor specifies.

If you are a COB student and your professor lets you choose the style, you may want to choose APA Style (as you are likely to be asked to use APA again in COB classes). 

APA 7th edition Works Cited Examples - Articles


Electronic article with DOI (direct object identifier) -

Lau, C. L. L. (2010). A step forward: Ethics education matters! Journal of Business Ethics, 92(4), 565-584.

Electronic article with exact URL printed on article (if a doi is not available)

Lanier, C. D. Jr., & Saini, A. (2008). Understanding consumer privacy: A review and future directions. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 12(2), 1-45. Retrieved from

Electronic article with journal home page

DiGabriele, J. (2010). Applying forensic skepticism to lost profits valuations. Journal of Accountancy, 209(4), 32-38. Retrieved from

Article in print form

Ensign, P., & Hebert, L. (2010). How reputation affects knowledge sharing among colleagues. MIT Sloan Management Review, 51(2), 79-81.

APA 7th edition Author Format Tips

Use last name and initials for each author. Separate multiple authors with commas, and use both a comma and an ampersand (&) before the final author's name.

One author:
Kennedy, J. F. (1962).

Two authors:
Smith, A., & Kennedy, J. F.  (1960).

Three to twenty authors (3+):
Smith, A., Kennedy, J. F., & Doe, J. (1961).
Smith, A., Kennedy, J. F., Doe, J., Wong, P. L., Fry, B., Jones, K., & Last, A. (1961).

Organization as Author or unsigned dictionary and encyclopedia entries:
American Management Association. (2009).
Encyclopedia of Marketing. (2020). 

No Author:
Move the title to the author position and follow with date of publication. Only use "Anonymous" if the work lists an anonymous author. 

Brain research needs new ideas. (2011, July 18). Wall Street Journal, p. A12.

APA Works Cited Examples - Books, eBooks, Reports, etc.


Davenport, T. H., & Jinho, K. (2013). Keeping up with the quants: Your guide to understanding and using analytics. Harvard Business School Press.

AMA Management Handbook chapter

Capon, N. (1994). The product life cycle. In J. J. Hampton (Ed.), AMA Management Handbook (3rd ed., pp. 18-35). Amacom.

Conference Board Report

Levanon, G., Abel, A. L., Li, A., & Rong, C. (April 2021). Job satisfaction 2021: Job satisfaction remains high even in the midst of the pandemic and economic chaos. Retrieved from Conference Board Business Knowledge Research database.

S&P Industry Survey

Leon, K. (January 5, 2012). Homebuilding. In Standard & Poor's Industry Surveys. Retrieved from S&P NetAdvantage database.

Mintel Report

Tip: Use the analyst as the author--you can find the analyst on the main page of the report. 

Frank, J. N. (July 2012). Healthy Snacking. Mintel Market Research Report. Retrieved from Mintel database.

Hoover's Company Record in ProQuest (Business - Scholarly & Trade)

Nike, Inc. (September 15, 2012). Hoover's Company Records. Retrieved from ProQuest database.

WSJ Article

Weisman, J.  (2010, March 23). Parties joust over next steps on health. Wall Street Journal;(Eastern ed.), Retrieved from

10-K Report (SEC filing)

McDonald's Corporation. (February 24, 2014). 10-K Form. Retrieved from

Web Site

Starbucks Corporation Web Site. (May 8, 2015). Company information. Retrieved from

APA Style

These links offer advice for using APA Style and have enough information for most student papers.

What is a doi ?

DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. DOIs are used to identify electronic articles and function much like the ISBNs that you are used to for textbooks.

Unlike a web address, the DOI for an article never changes. APA Style recommends that you include a DOI when available.

Where do I find a DOI?
The DOI is often printed on the first page of journal articles--sometimes at the top of the page and sometimes at the bottom. You will recognize it, because it usually is preceded by doi: and the number always starts with 10.

Some articles will not have a DOI, especially non-scholarly articles or older articles.

Harvard Citation Style