If you need assistance with APA Style, please use the University Writing Center (UWC Virtual) if you are an undergraduate student. Graduate students can use the UWC for Graduate Students.
"Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version."
Online or print article with DOI (direct object identifier) (add URL with the doi.org prefix) -
Llyod, M. & MacDonald, M. (2011). Motor skills of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 17(2),133–146. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361311402230
Online article with no DOI found in a library database (don't add any URL) --
Herrington, J. & Oliver, R. (1999). Using situated learning and multimedia to investigate higher-order thinking. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 8(4), 401-422.
Online article with no DOI on the web (not in a library database) (add a URL when it works for readers) --
Shea, G. (2019, Spring). Relationships: The key to student success in afterschool programs. Afterschool Matters, 29. https://www.niost.org/Afterschool-Matters-Spring-2019/relationships
Article in print form with no DOI --
Ensign, P. & Hebert, L. (2010). How reputation affects knowledge sharing among colleagues. MIT Sloan Management Review, 51(2), 79-81.
Use last name and initials
Kennedy, J. F.
Multiple authors (2-20)
Smith, A., & Kennedy, J. F. (1960).
Smith, A., Kennedy, J. F., & Doe, J. (1961).
Multiple authors (21+)
"When there are 21 or more authors include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipses (but no ampersand), and then add the final author's name" (APA Manual 7th ed. p. 286)
Organization as Author
American Management Association. (2009).
"move the title of the work to the author position (followed by a period), before the date of publication" (APA Manual 7th ed. p. 289):
Brain research needs new ideas. (2011, July 18). Wall Street Journal, p. A12.
Book - print book or Library ebook without a DOI
Tough, P. (2012). How children succeed: Grit, curiosity, and the hidden power of character. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
eBook with a DOI
Williamson, R., & Blackburn, B. R. (2016) The principalship from a to z (2nd ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315707792
Newspaper Article (in a library database)
Young, J. R. (2012, September 3). With 'access codes,' textbook pricing gets more complicated than ever. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Newspaper Article (from the web)
Behrmann, S. (2019, October 24). Education Secretary Betsy DeVos held in civil contempt for violating judge's order on student loan collection. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/education/2019/10/24/betsy-devos-contempt-violating-order-student-loans/4091621002/
A Dissertation found in ProQuest database
Sharp, M. A. (2002). An analysis of pupil-teacher ratio and class size: Differences that make a difference (Publication No. 3074013) [Doctoral dissertation, Eastern Michigan University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
A Dissertation found on the web (not in a database)
Tenjeras Clarke, D. (2007). Exploration into the Head Start fade phenomenon [Doctoral dissertation, Eastern Michigan University]. Digital Commons @ EMU. https://commons.emich.edu/theses/137/
Report by an organization or government agency, with authors listed on the report
Fung, A., Brown, C. & Tromble, K. (2022). Comprehensive approaches to student success: community of practice research and equity agenda. Institute for College Access & Success. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED617816
These links offer advice for using APA Style and have enough information for most student papers.
You can save a lot of time using the Cite feature in library databases. Be careful, however, as these are often not perfect--so you may need to make some edits.
Use the style that your professor specifies.
If your professor lets you choose the style and you are an Education student, you may want to choose APA Style, as you are likely to be asked to use APA again in Education classes.
When using ERIC or PsycINFO via ProQuest, look on the Abstract/Details page for "Cite -- this can provide you with an APA citation.
Be careful, however, as these aren't always perfect. You may have to make corrections to the citation. Common corrections might include:
DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. DOIs are used to identify electronic articles and function much like the ISBNs that you are used to for textbooks.
Unlike a web address, the DOI for an article never changes. APA Style recommends that you include a DOI when available.
Where do I find a DOI?
The DOI is often printed on the first page of journal articles--sometimes at the top of the page and sometimes at the bottom. You will recognize it, because it usually is preceded by doi: and the number always starts with 10.
Some articles will not have a DOI, especially non-scholarly articles or older articles.