Peer Review & Scholarly Sources

Types of Articles and Where they Appear

Select an article type from the table below to see an example.

  Scholarly Journals Trade Publications News and Popular Magazines Academic Reference Books
Purpose Original research or arguments that contribute to scholarly debate. Practical information for members of a profession, industry, or organization: news, trends, products, research summaries. Information, entertainment, news, and opinions for the general public. Overviews of topics and sub-topics, factual information, and neutral perspectives on scholarly debates or theories.
Writing Style  / Audience Specialized vocabulary or jargon. Written for scholars and specialists. Specialized vocabulary or jargon. Written for professionals. Vocabulary understood by anyone with an upper elementary education. Written for consumer groups and the general public. Specialized vocabulary, but with definitions or explanations provided. Written for college students, specialists, and scholars.
Authors Scholars or researchers. Academic credentials, degrees, or affiliation are almost always provided. Journalists or professionals, industry, or organization. Credentials often provided. Journalists. Credentials are rarely provided. Scholars or experts who may be professional writers or journalists. Credentials, degrees, or affiliation are sometimes provided.
References / Bibliography Documentation of sources, quotes, facts, and ideas is required. Must be cited in footnotes or a bibliography. Documentation of sources not required, though there are sometimes brief bibliographies of further readings. Documentation of sources is rare. Documentation is common. Most offer references or recommended reading after each entry or article, or compiled at the end of the entire source.
Advertisements Few, if any, advertisements. Moderate number of advertisements targeted to the interests of the members of a profession, industry, or organization. Large number of advertisements for a wide variety of products that appeal to the target population. No advertisements.