|News and Popular Magazines
|Academic Reference Books
|Original research or arguments that contribute to scholarly debate.
|Practical information for members of a profession, industry, or organization: news, trends, products, research summaries.
|Information, entertainment, news, and opinions for the general public.
|Overviews of topics and sub-topics, factual information, and neutral perspectives on scholarly debates or theories.
|Writing Style / Audience
|Specialized vocabulary or jargon. Written for scholars and specialists.
|Specialized vocabulary or jargon. Written for professionals.
|Vocabulary understood by anyone with an upper elementary education. Written for consumer groups and the general public.
|Specialized vocabulary, but with definitions or explanations provided. Written for college students, specialists, and scholars.
|Scholars or researchers. Academic credentials, degrees, or affiliation are almost always provided.
|Journalists or professionals, industry, or organization. Credentials often provided.
|Journalists. Credentials are rarely provided.
|Scholars or experts who may be professional writers or journalists. Credentials, degrees, or affiliation are sometimes provided.
|References / Bibliography
|Documentation of sources, quotes, facts, and ideas is required. Must be cited in footnotes or a bibliography.
|Documentation of sources not required, though there are sometimes brief bibliographies of further readings.
|Documentation of sources is rare.
|Documentation is common. Most offer references or recommended reading after each entry or article, or compiled at the end of the entire source.
|Few, if any, advertisements.
|Moderate number of advertisements targeted to the interests of the members of a profession, industry, or organization.
|Large number of advertisements for a wide variety of products that appeal to the target population.